deeply concave with only supraorbital ridges;
interorbital space broader than the upper eyelid;
tympanum very small or indistinct; first finger does
not extend beyond second; toes with single
subarticular tubercle, no tarsal fold; parotid is as
long as the head; body with irregular porous
length 130-132 mm.
Uniform brown. Cranial crest and tips of digits dark
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: China,
India, Nepal, Pakistan.
toad has been recorded from Himalayas at 2000-3500 m
of elevation, from Nepal, Bhutan (Bhaduri, 1944). In
Pakistan it has been recorded from Azad Kashmir,
Hazara Division, and Northwestern Frontier Province.
History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors:
Life history notes: Bufo himalayanus is a mountain
species; primarily nocturnal; however, it is often seen
moving about in broad day light among rocks and vegetation
feeding on grasshoppers, moths, ants, and other
invertebrate animals. It rests during the day under stones
or in fissures and holes in the ground.
activity starts after a downpour, during May-July;
males croak in low tone with "curr, curr"
repeated several times. Eggs are laid in a double
string of jelly in shallow pools along torrents.
Head flat, body darker, belly bulging, tail weak,
low fins; naris slightly nearer to eye than snout;
eyes small and sunken; oral disc anteroventral,
labial tooth row formula typically bufonid: 2(2)/3,
beak serrated, oral papillae lateral; color
uniformly black, ventrum lighter. The tadpoles are
found, at a high elevation in the Himalayan range,
in small, calm pools along torrents, with algal
length of tadpole 28-30; tail 19-20 mm.
toad hibernates during the winter under stones and
in fissures in the ground from September to March.
The karyotype number recorded for this species is 22
(Chatterjii and Barik, 1970).
Inhabits side pools of torrents. Mostly terrestrial.
very rare highland species.
reasons for amphibian decline:
Local pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants
All information, pictures and maps property of:
Muhammad Sharif Khan