Toads of Pakistan

 

 

 

 


Himalayan Toad

Bufo Himalayanus

 

Description:

Head deeply concave with only supraorbital ridges; interorbital space broader than the upper eyelid; tympanum very small or indistinct; first finger does not extend beyond second; toes with single subarticular tubercle, no tarsal fold; parotid is as long as the head; body with irregular porous tubercles.

 

Snout-vent length 130-132 mm.

 

Color: Uniform brown. Cranial crest and tips of digits dark brown.

 

Distribution and Habitat:
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: China, India, Nepal, Pakistan.

 

This toad has been recorded from Himalayas at 2000-3500 m of elevation, from Nepal, Bhutan (Bhaduri, 1944). In Pakistan it has been recorded from Azad Kashmir, Hazara Division, and Northwestern Frontier Province.

 

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors:
Life history notes: Bufo himalayanus is a mountain species; primarily nocturnal; however, it is often seen moving about in broad day light among rocks and vegetation feeding on grasshoppers, moths, ants, and other invertebrate animals. It rests during the day under stones or in fissures and holes in the ground.

 

Breeding activity starts after a downpour, during May-July; males croak in low tone with "curr, curr" repeated several times. Eggs are laid in a double string of jelly in shallow pools along torrents.

 

Tadpole: Head flat, body darker, belly bulging, tail weak, low fins; naris slightly nearer to eye than snout; eyes small and sunken; oral disc anteroventral, labial tooth row formula typically bufonid: 2(2)/3, beak serrated, oral papillae lateral; color uniformly black, ventrum lighter. The tadpoles are found, at a high elevation in the Himalayan range, in small, calm pools along torrents, with algal vegetation.

 

Total length of tadpole 28-30; tail 19-20 mm.

 

The toad hibernates during the winter under stones and in fissures in the ground from September to March. The karyotype number recorded for this species is 22 (Chatterjii and Barik, 1970).

 

Trends and Threats:
Inhabits side pools of torrents. Mostly terrestrial.

 

Relation to Humans:
No record.

 

Comments:

A very rare highland species.

 

Possible reasons for amphibian decline:

Prolonged drought
Local pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants

 

Reference:

None

 

Credits: All information, pictures and maps property of:

  • Dr. Muhammad Sharif Khan
  • AmphibiaWeb(http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/aw)

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copyright 1999-2002-wildlife of Pakistan-all rights reserved

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